The Younger Futhark is a shortened version of the Elder Futhark (16 Runes instead of 24) used mainly as a form of writing runic script starting in the late 8th century and being fully established by the 9th century across Europe. Although this alphabet was used more as a writing system and had a more solid phonetic system to it the Runes themselves still carried the individual meanings from the Elder Futhark.
Image Credit: Sons of Vikings
The Long branch Runes are often referred to as the Danish Runes and the Short twig Runes as the Swedish or Norwegian Runes. There is also a version of the Runes known as Staveless Runes. The use of this Rune system had all but nearly disappeared by the 12th century due to the Christianisation of Europe during that time period. By the end of the 13th century there had emerged another form of runic alphabet adopted from both of the previous Futhark alphabets that had a wider range of letters and phonetic systems making them easier to use in writing, they are usually referred to as The Medieval Runes they remained in use until the around the 15th century. Another form of Runic scripts remained in use as late as 1910 in the Dalarna Province in Sweden known as The Dalecarlian Runes.
The Younger Futhark even has its own version of a Rune Poem known as Abecedarium Nordmannicum
The Runic systems don’t seem to been historically used for magic practices or divination, more as a means of writing stories or accounts of events in the past. I do like to try and apply them in spellwork by writing in this alphabet (as best I can with some letters missing from English in the 16 Rune versions) I do use the Elder Futhark more mind you but that’s only because single Runes are easier to carve then trying to figure out how to write words with letters missing
Mod Note: Edited to add link to image source. (@MeganB)